Mail Systems

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  • configuring first install of exim in Debian/Ubuntu
dpkg-reconfigure exim4-config
  • General type of mail configuration: internet site; mail is sent and received directly using SMTP
  • System mail name: <the FQDN of the host>
  • IP-addresses to listen on for incoming SMTP connections:
  • Other destinations for which mail is accepted: <blank>
  • Domains to relay mail for: <blank>
  • Machines to relay mail for: <blank>
  • Keep number of DNS-queries minimal (Dial-on-Demand)? No
  • Delivery method for local mail: mbox format in /var/mail/
  • Split configuration into small files? No


  • see the queue:
    • or
exim -bp

the output shows the message queue giving useful information to work with it:

 root:~# mailq
 24h   379 1QC8cA-0001iy-B3 <>
*; 1QC8cA-0001iy-B3: message ID (corresponds to a filename)
*; 24h : time msg spent in the queue
*; 379:  the size in bytes.
  • find a queued message:
find /var/spool/ -name "1QC8cA-0001iy-B3*"
  • to un-queue messages, I delete the files found by the find command (to rude maybe?)... it works
  • flush the queue:
  • or
exim -q
    • flush queue forcing frozen messages to be sent
exim -qf 
    • flush queue forcing frozen/non-frozen messages to be sent
exim -qff
  • Prints run time configuration:
exim4 -bP
  • testing relay emulating a host:

/usr/sbin/exim -bh

mail rcpt


  • this options will make exim act as a secondary MX of anyone listing your server in the DNS :
domainlist relay_to_domains = @mx_secondary
  • this uses a file instead:
domainlist relay_to_domains =  ${lookup{$domain}partial-lsearch{/etc/relay_to_domains}}


command line

  • enabling SMTP relay:
Restriction list name 	Status 	Effect of REJECT or DEFER result
smtpd_client_restrictions 	Optional 	Reject all client commands
smtpd_helo_restrictions 	Optional 	Reject HELO/EHLO information
smtpd_sender_restrictions 	Optional 	Reject MAIL FROM information
smtpd_recipient_restrictions 	Required 	Reject RCPT TO information
smtpd_data_restrictions 	Optional 	Reject DATA command
smtpd_end_of_data_restrictions 	Optional 	Reject END-OF-DATA command
smtpd_etrn_restrictions 	Optional 	Reject ETRN command

show queue


flush the mail queue

postfix flush

remove all the mail from the queue (delete it)

postsuper -d ALL

find email address in queue

(postsuper manual)

for a in `mailq |  grep -v '^ *(' | awk  'BEGIN { RS = "" } { if ($8 == "" && $9 == "") print $1 } ' | tr -d '*!'`; do echo "---$a";ls -l ./*/$a; done;
mailq | tail -n +2 | awk 'BEGIN { RS = "" } / info@mail\.com$/ { print $1 }' | tr -d '*!' | postsuper -d -
postqueue -p | tail -n +2 | awk 'BEGIN { RS = "" } / info@email\.net/ { print $1 }' | tr -d '*!' | postsuper -d -

re-process the queue

postqueue -f
  • or...

canonical rewrite

vi /etc/postfix/canonical

femmes:~# postmap /etc/postfix/canonical

  • unix user e-mail
  • generating a report and sending it:
/usr/sbin/sendmail -v <an e-mail>


#mynetworks = hash:/etc/postfix/network_table
#relay_domains = $mydestination
#relayhost = $mydomain
alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases
alias_database = hash:/etc/aliases
#home_mailbox = Maildir/
debug_peer_level = 2
#debug_peer_list =
#header_checks = regexp:/etc/postfix/header_checks




ssl enabled, but ssl_cert not set

  • get rid of those "<" characters !!!


  • show all lists
  • show pending messages
/var/lib/mailman/bin/show_qfiles /var/lib/mailman/qfiles/shunt/*.pck
  • re-queque shunted messages
# on another terminal
tail -f /var/log/mail.log
  • find the parent list of an address:
 for lista in `/usr/lib/mailman/bin/list_lists -b`; do  /usr/lib/mailman/bin/list_members $lista|grep <indirizzo> && echo $lista; done

virtual hosts

  • in the file: